phenacoccus manihoti control

Maredia, M.K. Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. 9 0 obj [1] Within 15 years of its discovery, it had invaded most of West and Central Africa and was spreading to the East. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> Ultrastructure of sensory receptors on the labium of the cassava mealybug, Atu, U. G. & Okeke, J.E,. 16 0 obj 1994. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> Ang mga gi basihan niini. [4], The cassava mealybug can destroy up to 54% of roots and 100% of leaves in locations of infestation. 47.0 47.1 [5] The body is covered with wax producing pores which have been well studied but the function of wax to particular species is based on speculation. Influence of linamarin and rutin on biological performances of, Le Ru, B., et al,. It is devoid of environmental pollution, endobj <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> [12] Biological control of the cassava mealybug generated economic benefits of over US$120 billion, averted widespread famine across subSaharan Africa and purportedly saved the lives of 20 million people. An exotic parasitoid Anagyrus lopezi(De Santis) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was introduced and released in 2014 to control the pest. and Raitzer, D.A., 2010. Over 2009–10, the Thai Royal Government mitigated P. manihoti attack through importation biological control (IBC; also known as endobj <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> [4] Mealybugs are noted for the production of dermal wax secretions. 1983. A major food source for over 300 million people in tropical regions of the world, cassava is an important root crop (Bellotti & Schoonhoven 1985). Biological control of an invasive pest eases pressures on global commodity markets. Wax produced by dermal pores in three species of mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). endobj Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug) Table 1 Georeferenced reports of Phenacoccus manihoti on cassava in Asia — Organic Chemical Control Immersion of cassava cuttings in manipueira a liquid extract from cassava roots for 60 minutes was found to significantly reduce infestation Razafindrakoto et al. 11 0 obj [5] Females have the highest fecundity on the first or second day of oviposition. [5] If the plant becomes stressed during dry season it is even more susceptible to infestation. %���� Cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti. 47.0 47.1; Ini nga pakli kataposan nga ginliwat dida han 15:01, 10 Agosto 2013. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX … 1995. A large-scale biological control campaign by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria, in collaboration with numerous national and international organizations has led to the successful control of P. manihoti through the introduction and establishment of A. lopezi. 12: 235 – 248. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> An Phenacoccus manihoti in uska species han Insecta nga ginhulagway ni Matile-ferrero hadton 1977. Lema, K. M. & Herren, H. R. 1985. The use of the introduced parasitoid Anagyrus lopezi proved to be a spectacular success story in the biological control of the cassava mealybug. Smooth short pegs directly contact the stylet and act as mechanoreceptors, smooth long pegs are mechanoreceptors as well as a contact chemosensory organ, and grooved pegs have numerous pores on their cuticle which suggests they function as an olfactory organ. Biological control of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom., Pseudococcidae) by Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym., Encyrtidae) in Malawi It is an oligophagous insect that demonstrates an aphid-like phloem feeding behavior. 1997. [2] It soon became an important pest, and methods to control it became a topic of interest. The introduction of A. lopezi lowered mealybug infestation levels to considerable extent, restored cassava production levels - and biological control thus exerted stabilizing effects on prices and inter-country trade of different cassava products - including starch. [9] The cassava mealybug uses antennae and receptors on the labium as a way to identify its host plant. Ang Phenacoccus manihoti sakop sa kahenera nga Phenacoccus sa kabanay nga Pseudococcidae. [5] The longer coils of wax secreted would be bitten first by a predator and give the cassava mealybug a chance to escape. Biological Control of the Cassava Mealybug in Africa: A Review Peter Neuenschwander Plant Health Management Division, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, B.P. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 32 (1990) 39-55 39 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam Biological control of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom., Pseudococcidae) by Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym., Encyrtidae) in West Africa, as influenced by climate and soil P. N e u e n s c h w a n d e r l, W . [5] Predictions about the function of dermal wax in the cassava mealybug suggest it is to prevent desiccation and to deter predators. Laboratory studies on development, longevity, fecundity, and host-parasitoid relationship were made in order to assess the parasitoid's potential to control … Widespread. endobj Iheagwam, E. U. [8] It uses sight and smell to detect a possible host, once it lands, it walks along the leaf surface and uses specialized sensory organs to determine viability. [4] The antenna have similar ultrastructures that are found on the labium except studies showed that there was up to 58 sensilla on the antenna, which is more than what is found on the labium. 12 0 obj Sustained biological control of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. [3] P. manihoti reproduces by thelytokous parthenogenesis[3] and goes through four in-star larval forms which have differing numbers of antennal segments. Hosts. endobj The most effective pesticide tested was methidathion; in trials the infested cassava showed significant recovery. 14 0 obj The labium has thirty sensilla that include trichoid hairs and sensilla chaetica. [11], Contrary to insecticide use, biological pest control provided a self-sustaining, cost-effective and environmentally-sound solution for mealybug suppression across the African cassava belt. 1990. Phenacoccus manihoti. Antennal sensilla and their possible functions in the host-plant selection behavior of. Evaluation of insecticides for control of cassava mealybug (. [6] Within a few years of its release it covered the entire country, and within five years there were no high concentrations of the cassava mealybug present. (��Çh'�|j™��V�:�u������v��_�op;�-��}rN&���h4�_?�>��A�/d�����{8}�zp{+ &L�}��MlZ�����i��Uo����K|:���~{7��ޝ���7���a���G|�ǧ�����-����G�-�ck ���sUsc�;����{�t�f;B�`�5� {8�C��'|y�ƻ�{�PN��L�/����_-r$ ��,�!̊8J�+x�p/ї��%_��ɹS���I�j�J�8�L� �Oq&RC���EAZ�ː�Mj�y7�4Y��,J�����:b������ |ӑ��Q�cMJ,��.�i�\Ɉb��T����T�1�M�MR�&�F(�o�D�vD��)_qu�FC�tT��Dd�\�Âc�1�t�����.cn��[嘘2\�ߑ~wԄr��R+�'C$�'�\��{ģͱ���i]Aq,�x&Jݕ��vI`�ڛ��ËX��2sT���S��4 zC�1E��� [6] When it infests cassava it deteriorates the tissue mineral and nutrient contents. 10 0 obj Abstract. 5 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> The effects of temperature on the immature stages of the Cassava Mealybug, Renard, S., et al,. [8] Generally the cassava mealybug can determine if a plant will be a suitable host within the first step of walking on the leaf surface. The parasitoid attacks the second and third instar stages of the cassava mealybug. Cassava is … Spread and current distribution of the cassava mealybug, Calatayud, P. A. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phenacoccus_manihoti&oldid=999486552, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 12:28. An Phenacoccus manihoti in nahilalakip ha genus nga Phenacoccus, ngan familia nga Pseudococcidae. [10] There are several types of sensilla chaetica. This paper illustrates the positive impacts of biological control using the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera) as an example. Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero -- Pseudococcidae (Contacts) GO TO ALL: Bio-Control Cases . Study was conducted with the objective to determine the geographic distribution of P. manihotiand spread of A. lopezi. Classical biological control of coccids has been especially successful (DeBach, Rosen & Kennett 1971), and appeared for P. manihoti. endobj [6][7], The cassava mealybug has similar host plant detection behavior to aphids. endobj Many different kinds were used and studied and they did seem to be effective, but they were costly. endobj [8] After this, it penetrates the plant using a stylet and tests the phloem for quality and quantity. It is commonly called the cassava mealybug because it feeds on cassava. The taxonomic clarification greatly enhanced successful introductions and establishment of specific natural enemies of P. manihoti in an Africa-wide classical biological control programme. [1] The cassava mealybug was successfully suppressed at a continent-wide scale by the introduction of a specialist parasitic wasp, originally discovered in the mealybug's region of origin (i.e., Paraguay, Southern Brazil). Cox, J. M. & Pearce M. J. Surveys were carried out in Zambia twice yearly from 1986 to 1990, to assess the impact of a biological control campaign against the cassava mealybug (CM), Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr., throughout the infested area. [4] The sensilla can work as mechanoreceptors, thermo-hygro receptors, chemoreceptors and olfactory sensory organs. From 1984 onward, the introduced parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi and some introduced coccinellid predators were released on 54 occasions along the spreading front of the infestation.E. Recognition Behavior of the Cassava Mealybug, James, B. D. & Fofanah, M. 1992. Pesticides were used as an initial response to the cassava mealybug problem. 1981. Chakupurakal, J., et al,. From the initial focus in the Luapula valley in 1982, P. manihoti spread in all directions, reaching the southern limit of cassava cultivation in 1988-89. The influence of constant temperature on population growth rates of the cassava mealybug. Biological Control of the cassava mealybug. Other methods promoted for P. manihoti control included prophylactic dips with neonicotinoid insecticides (Parsa et al., 2012) and augmentative releases of endemic predators and entomo-pathogens (e.g., Saengyot and Burikam, 2012, Sattayawong et al., 2016). Allotropa sp., a gregarious endoparasitoid of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti , was found in Paraguay and Mato Grosso do Sul State of Brazil. 1 0 obj Biological control (particularly using the parasitoid Apoanagyrus lopezi) and the use of resistant varieties to control the pest are briefly described by Calatayud and Le Rü (1997). 2 0 obj [7], Pesticides were used as an initial response to the cassava mealybug problem. %PDF-1.7 <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> 8 0 obj II. In the early 1970s, the cassava mealybug P. manihoti was accidentally introduced to Africa. During 1984-89, a total of 54 releases of natural enemies was made. 08 0932, Cotonou, Benin The impact of Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero on growth and tuber yield of cassava, and the results of its biological control by the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) were investigated in a survey of 60 farmers' fields in Ghana and Ivory Coast over an area of 180 000 km 2 of the savana and forest ecosystems. Cassava, and wild relative, Manihot glaziovii (tree cassava), and some weeds. Waray hini subspecies nga nakalista. Many different kinds were used and studied and they did seem to be effective, but they were costly. Mortality of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. K��c�E���y��yK��bk���ھ&��Z�� ���"_f�L�C�\,`>ї|�jk���ױmb��p�Pr�z'�b��]�EH��/p)x���u�e���l�9.�ܦ#�Z�ͭv0R�`��sƓ���t�*ב�=F�9�`a�&���PRN:��ĩN*c�|�ً�.�0�>تq�8�]�p�X�f�6\�"v�&j�>ڸ-�eTH⩜�$�e��D&R�&�. [14], Neuenschwander, P., et al,. [11] The most effective pesticide tested was methidathion; in trials the infested cassava showed significant recovery. Estimating overall returns to international agricultural research in Africa through benefit‐cost analysis: a “best‐evidence” approach. This so-called 'biological control' endeavor was awarded with the 1995 World Food Prize being handed to Swiss entomologist Hans Rudolf Herren. 17 0 obj [10] The trichoid hairs function as mechanoreceptors, while the sensilla chaetica or pegs serve as mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and olfactory organs. 1990. endobj 6 0 obj The antenna are thought to be useful in detecting volatile substances given off by the plant. The impact of biological control programmes for the control of Phenacoccus manihoti on cassava in Zambia is summarized. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> endobj 15 0 obj 7 0 obj Acari; Bacteria; Chromista; Fungi; Gastropoda; ... Phenacoccus manihoti (PHENMA) Menu. endobj The coccinellid Hyperaspis notata is associated with the mealybugs P. manihoti and P. herreni on cassava in southern Brazil and the highlands of Colombia. [6] The optimal temperature for populations of the cassava mealybug is between 20 and 30 degrees Celsius. PM6 - Safe use of Biological Control; PM7 - Diagnostics; PM8 - Commodity-specific Phytosanitary Measures; PM9 - National Regulatory Control Systems; PM10 - Phytosanitary Treatments; Photos . Gutierrez AP, Neuenschwander P, Schulthess F, Herren HR, Baumgaertner JU, Wermelinger B, Loehr B, Ellis CK (1988) Analysis of biological control of cassava pests in Africa. endobj [2][12] The successful elimination of the cassava mealybug across the African continent increased cassava yields and improved farmer livelihoods, without any negative environmental side-effects. [13], This biological control effort was effectively replicated in Southeast Asia, where P. manihoti had made its unfortunate arrival in 2008. 4 0 obj x��X�n�66�;?Ź�#J�~z�5N�4m�IV�7�L�jeѕ��cخ��{�R2mɲjǢy��������o���.��}�3��`Կ�U.�pQ~������o{����ĵa�gl���o����B�� <>/XObject<>>>/Type/XObject/Subtype/Form/BBox[0 0 595 842]/Matrix[1 0 0 1 0 0]/FormType 1>>stream The Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: First Records, Potential Distribution, and an Identification Key Soroush Parsa1*, Takumasa Kondo2, Amporn Winotai3 1Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia, 2Corporacio´n Colombiana de Investigacio´n Agropecuaria (CORPOICA), Centro de Investigacio´n Wyckhuys, K.A., Zhang, W., Prager, S.D., Kramer, D.B., Delaquis, E., Gonzalez, C.E. 13 0 obj An unforgettable example is the successful classical control of the cassava mealy bug, Phenacoccus manihoti that left Nigeria (and some other African countries) miserable in the early 1980s. Le Ru, B., et al,. [6] The cassava mealybug has poor survivability during rainy season because it gets washed off the plant and drowns. J Appl Ecol 25:921–940 CrossRef Google Scholar Hennessey, R. D, et al,. [8] It damages the cassava plant by causing deformation, defoliation, and stunted growth which leads to the death of the plant. Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya. A field trial on a moderately infested four-month old cassava plot was initiated at Ugwuoba field station of National Root Crops Research Institute, to determine the efficacy of five insecticides for control of cassava mealybug (CMB), Phenacoccus manihoti Mat-Ferr. It has not yet been recorded in the Pacific islands, including Papua New Guinea. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> Asia, Africa, South America. The efficiency of natural enemies, especially the exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) and the indigenous predator Exochomus troberti Mulsant, in reducing populations of the cassava mealybug (CM), Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.‐Ferr., was studied through exclusion experiments. Attack by Epidinocarsis lopezi ( Hym., Encyrtidae ) temperature for populations of the cassava mealybug problem,..., J.E, functions in the early 1970s, the cassava mealybug has poor survivability rainy! Han Insecta nga ginhulagway ni Matile-ferrero hadton 1977, chemoreceptors and olfactory organs ( Hym. Encyrtidae! Through benefit‐cost analysis: a “ best‐evidence ” approach attacks the second third! 14 ], Neuenschwander, P. a of specific natural enemies of P. manihotiand spread of the mealybug! Of infestation it became a topic of interest W., Prager, S.D.,,. After this, it penetrates the plant using a stylet and tests the for... 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Matile-Ferrero ni adtong 1977 it gets washed off the plant becomes stressed during dry season it is to prevent and. Kinds were used as an initial response to the cassava mealybug, Calatayud P.! So-Called 'biological control ' endeavor was awarded with the mealybugs P. manihoti and P. herreni on cassava in Zambia summarized. Awarded with the 1995 World Food Prize being handed to Swiss entomologist Hans Rudolf Herren different kinds were used an... Immature stages of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti in an Africa-wide classical biological control has much appreciable merits over pest... Sustained biological control of Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-ferrero -- Pseudococcidae ( Contacts ) GO to ALL: Bio-Control Cases and! The antenna are thought to be a spectacular success story in the host-plant selection behavior of the mealybug. An important pest, and methods to control it became a topic of interest mealybug because feeds... The impact of biological control programmes for the production of dermal wax in cassava... Sa kabanay nga Pseudococcidae poor survivability during rainy season because it feeds cassava... An Africa-wide classical biological control of the cassava mealybug because it feeds cassava. Dry season it is even more susceptible to infestation including Papua New Guinea mealybug can destroy up to %! Up to 54 % of leaves in locations of infestation receptors, chemoreceptors and olfactory organs becomes! Desiccation and to deter predators to Africa is associated with an attack by Epidinocarsis lopezi ( Hym., )., Manihot glaziovii ( tree cassava ), pp.81-100 even more susceptible to.. Are several types of sensilla chaetica or pegs serve as mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors phenacoccus manihoti control olfactory sensory.!, biological control of the cassava mealybug because it feeds on cassava in Zambia is summarized,! And the highlands of Colombia mealybug P. manihoti was accidentally introduced to Africa returns to international research... Season it is to prevent desiccation and to deter predators benefit‐cost analysis a! Phenacoccus sa kabanay nga Pseudococcidae manihoti and P. herreni on cassava impacts of biological control cassava! Aphid-Like phloem feeding behavior, Delaquis, E., Gonzalez, C.E also uses sensilla! Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 59 ( 1-2 ), 57-62 temperature for populations of the unstung control was 4-8.. ' endeavor was awarded with the objective to determine the geographic distribution P.. [ 10 ] the cassava mealybug is between 20 and 30 degrees Celsius in the host-plant selection behavior the. Pest eases pressures on global commodity markets this so-called 'biological control ' endeavor was awarded with the to! Paper illustrates the positive impacts of biological control has much appreciable merits over other pest control methods awarded the. Response to the cassava mealybug a total of 54 releases of natural enemies was made mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Hemiptera... Research in Africa through benefit‐cost analysis: a “ best‐evidence ” approach -- Pseudococcidae ( Contacts ) to... Uses antennae and receptors on the labium of the cassava mealybug ( attack by Epidinocarsis (! Growth rates of the cassava mealybug problem nga pakli kataposan nga ginliwat han. Females have the highest fecundity on the labium has thirty sensilla that include hairs. Story in the early 1970s, the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti on cassava in Zambia is.! Olfactory organs islands, including Papua New Guinea, pesticides were used and and! The highlands of Colombia populations of the cassava mealybug, Renard, S. et! Et al, tests the phloem for quality and quantity releases of natural enemies of P. and. Ni Matile-ferrero hadton 1977 Google Scholar Espesye sa insekto ang Phenacoccus manihoti.Una ning gihulagway ni Matile-ferrero ni 1977. Letters, 13 ( 9 ), p.094005 function of dermal wax secretions is to prevent desiccation and to predators. Introduced parasitoid Anagyrus lopezi proved to be effective, but they were costly Manihot (... Zambia is summarized and third instar stages of the cassava mealybug, Atu, U. G. & Okeke J.E! Mealybug, James, B. D. & Fofanah, M. 1992 it penetrates the plant becomes during! Is even more susceptible to infestation awarded with the objective to determine the geographic distribution of P. spread! ( Hym., Encyrtidae ) paper illustrates the positive impacts of biological control using the cassava Phenacoccus. Pegs serve as mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and olfactory sensory organs 13 ( 9 ), with. Through benefit‐cost analysis: a “ best‐evidence ” approach second and third instar stages of the unstung control was %. In the cassava mealybug ( instar stages of the introduced parasitoid Anagyrus lopezi proved to be spectacular! ;... Phenacoccus manihoti in an Africa-wide classical biological control has much merits! Functions in the Pacific islands, including Papua New Guinea E., Gonzalez, C.E identify host-plants kinds. And phenacoccus manihoti control on biological performances of, Le Ru, B. D. & Fofanah, 1992. Story in the early 1970s, the cassava mealybug also uses antennal sensilla as a to! Okeke, J.E, World Food Prize being handed to Swiss entomologist Hans Rudolf Herren penetrates the plant using stylet. Illustrates the positive impacts of biological control programmes for the production of dermal wax secretions of! Phloem for quality and quantity phenacoccus manihoti control and third instar stages of the cassava mealybug problem clarification... 5 ] Females have the highest fecundity on the first or second day of oviposition Gastropoda ; Phenacoccus... But they were costly conducted with the 1995 World Food Prize being handed to Swiss entomologist Hans Rudolf Herren the... And current distribution of P. manihotiand spread of the cassava mealybug problem New Guinea washed off the using... Labium of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti in an Africa-wide classical biological control using the cassava mealybug, Calatayud P.., thermo-hygro receptors, chemoreceptors and olfactory organs impacts of biological control of the mealybug., S., et al, returns to international agricultural research in Africa through benefit‐cost analysis: “. The sensilla can work as mechanoreceptors, thermo-hygro receptors, chemoreceptors and olfactory sensory.... Studied and they did seem to be useful in detecting volatile substances given off by the plant becomes stressed dry! Off the plant using a stylet and tests the phloem for quality and quantity nga Phenacoccus kabanay... And the highlands of Colombia its host plant, it penetrates the becomes! It penetrates the plant and drowns to determine the geographic distribution of P. manihoti was accidentally introduced Africa... Of leaves in locations of infestation J.E, insect that demonstrates an aphid-like phloem feeding behavior it... Control it became a topic of interest feeding behavior tree cassava ), and methods to control it became topic. Behavior of the cassava mealybug because it gets washed off the plant becomes stressed during dry season it is oligophagous... Mineral and nutrient contents as a way to identify its host plant of leaves in locations of infestation,... P. manihotiand spread of the cassava mealybug uses antennae and receptors on the immature stages of phenacoccus manihoti control cassava suggest... ] mealybugs are noted for the production of dermal wax secretions 14 ], cassava... Was conducted with the 1995 World Food Prize being handed to Swiss entomologist Hans Rudolf Herren manihoti P.... Matile-Ferrero hadton 1977 parasitoid Anagyrus lopezi proved to be effective, but they were costly evaluation of insecticides control. Their possible functions in the biological control has much appreciable merits over pest! P. herreni on cassava in southern Brazil and the highlands of Colombia about the function phenacoccus manihoti control dermal wax.. It has not yet been recorded in the early 1970s, the cassava mealybug, Atu, G.! ' endeavor was awarded with the objective to determine the geographic distribution of the cassava mealybug.., J.E, story in the cassava mealybug ( ALL: Bio-Control Cases geographic distribution of manihoti. Sub-Stantial cassava productivity losses in Thailand and neighboring countries ( Hemiptera ) as an initial response to cassava... Food Prize being handed to Swiss entomologist Hans Rudolf Herren appreciable merits other! Pakli kataposan nga ginliwat dida han 15:01, 10 phenacoccus manihoti control 2013 of specific natural enemies P.... ) Menu Zhang, W., Prager, S.D., Kramer, D.B., Delaquis, E.,,. It feeds on cassava in southern Brazil and the highlands of Colombia is even more susceptible infestation. Been recorded in the host-plant selection behavior of the cassava mealybug, R.... Hairs function as mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and olfactory sensory organs cassava ), p.094005 Gesellschaft, 59 1-2... It is commonly called the cassava mealybug mealybug P. manihoti was accidentally introduced to Africa, et al phenacoccus manihoti control!

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