kenaf fiber reinforced composites: a review

A. M. Ishak, and A. B. Kandola, “Nanocomposites, Fire Retardant Materials,” A. R. Horrocks, Ed., Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2000. This is because of the increase of stiffness of the composite. The first peak of thermal degradation for 20% kenaf fibre loading is 246°C and this shifted to around 217°C for 50% fibre content. Natural fibres namely sisal, jute, kenaf, hemp, abaca and banana are mainly used in … This is a surface modification to link between the particles [44]. Rouison et al. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. However, different environments will still yield various heights of kenaf plant, such as the cultivar, planting date, photosensitivity, length of growing season, plant populations, and plant maturity. Thus, the flammability of a natural fibre PMC requires much research from many aspects, and kenaf fibre can be said to be one of the most highly recommended natural fibres in the world. Most studies were conducted on kenaf/glass hybrid composites compared to other kenaf/synthetic hybrid composites. The decreased from 172°C to 162°C, 155°C and 150°C for neutral, acidic and alkaline solution, respectively. Therefore understanding the flammability of natural fibre based polymer composites could modify its fire behaviour thus allowing passengers more time to escape from an incident. Kenaf is grown commercially in South East Asia country and widely used in the construction and infrastructure as well as in the automotive industry. Although the presence of the natural fibre brought an earlier ignition, the heat released by natural fibre composites was noticeably reduced by more than 50% of the pure PP matrix. Fire behaviour properties are significant factors for natural fibre based polymer composites in terms of safety. J. E. McIntyre, The Chemistry of Fibres, 6, Edward Arnold, 2009. These engineered fibres are being produced with uniform properties in every single fibre in terms of dimensions and mechanical properties [10]. The following preliminary research has investigated the use of Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus, as a possible glass replacement in fiber reinforced composites. Even humans in the Stone Age combined some short length fibres and twisted them together as cords and yarns [12]. As increases occurred in the portion of APP, some big cell sizes formed irregular shape and this disturbed the original formation of wood/PP particles. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Figure 1 shows the percentage of composite materials used in an aircraft; it demonstrates increasingly higher percentages of structural weight being replaced with lighter yet more combustible composites material. Magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] is the popular metal hydroxide FR for polymers due to its high endothermic nature and water yield behavior. A measurement of HRR for a PP matrix with four natural fibres reinforced combinations was conducted by Kozłowski and Władyka-Przybylak [41]. The thermal decomposition of a natural fibre always started by low temperature of hemicelluloses decomposition and is followed by a sudden drop of mass caused by the pyrolysis of cellulosic. Kenaf fiber composite can be produced using conventional fiber composite manufacturing. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. In the outcome, fibre contents were inversely proportional to the thermal stability. One is that kenaf absorbs the nitrogen and phosphorus that are present in the soil. strengths of the natural fiber reinforced polymer composites increase with fiber content, up to a maximum or optimum value, the value will then drop. After a while, the cabin was filled with smoke hence visibility and oxygen levels were very low. Review Article A Review of the Flammability Factors of Kenaf and Allied Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites C.H.Lee,MohdSapuanSalit,andM.R.Hassan Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Correspondence should be addressed to Mohd Sapuan Salit; drsapuan@yahoo.com It is built up of an outer layer of bark and a core. This paper reviews the published and ongoing research work on kenaf/synthetic and Kevlar®/cellulosic fiber-reinforced composite materials. The composites were prepared from nonwoven kenaf and polypropylene (PP) by varying the fibre content from 0% to 40%. Components like polymers and natural fibres are natural fire conductors. On the other hand, animal bedding, sorbents, and horticultural mixes use short core fibres [23]. Whilst review articles and even books on the overall properties of natural fiber reinforced composites have been published , , the authors have concluded that a specific review article on the overall characteristics of kenaf fiber reinforced composites, has not yet been published; it is believed that such an article should be of significant value to the composite research community. Besides this, the combustion of biocomposites produces fewer toxic gases compared to conventional composites. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Optimum fiber content 20%. [17] investigated the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber reinforced in poly lactic acid composite. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), different scanning calorimetric (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) are the three most famous methods used to investigate the fire behaviour of composites. The most potential fire source is electrical. The objective was to compare the mechanical properties of short kenaf bast and core fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites with varying fiber weight fraction i.e. A. M. Ishak, and A. Abu Bakar, “Kenaf fiber reinforced composites: a review,”, J. Summerscales, N. P. J. Dissanayake, A. S. Virk, and W. Hall, “A review of bast fibres and their composites. 2 showed the parts of kenaf stem (core, bast and innerbast). Fibre crops are not a new product for humans. Kenaf fiber has been widely used as reinforcement in composites over the past few years which is a most attractive alternative due to its rapid growth at different climatic conditions and ensuring low cost; kenaf fiber has gained some attention to replacing the glass fiber … On the other hand, Suharty et al. Therefore, this paper presents an overview of the developments made in the area of kenaf fiber reinforced composites, in terms of their market, manufacturing methods, and overall properties. The stem of the kenaf is straight and there is no branching along the stem. The core shows an isotropic and almost amorphous pattern, while the bark has an oriented high crystalline fibre pattern [22]. The values were reduced to 4 GPa, 3.8 GPa, and 3 GPa for pH 7, pH 5.5, and pH 8.9 separately at their (172°C). estructure The papers made are stronger, whiter, of higher duration for yellowing resistance, and smoother for printing [14–16]. Boeing Aero, “Flight and cabin crew response to in-flight smoke,” 2013. The results show that the storage modulus of the sample was decreased after the immersion process. There will start a fire from smoke or fume. Rejab1, J.P Siregar1, D. Bachtiar1 1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang 26600 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia Abstract. All results show that the kenaf natural fibre shifts the onset thermal degradation temperature a little bit to the left for all matrices with the same fibre content. Besides this, DSC analysis concluded that adding a coupling agent will have no effect on both glass transition temperature, , and melting temperature, . Zainudin and K. Abdan2 1 Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mech. However, the degradation temperature of the polymer is much higher than natural fibres, for example, LDPE reinforced with kenaf fibre in the experiment. The photosynthesis rate of kenaf is much higher than the photosynthesis rate of conventional trees [21]. Kenaf is the most common natural fiber used as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites (PMC). A Review on Applications of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Composites Author : Sasikumar Gnanasekaran and Sivasangari Ayyappan Volume 7 No.2 July-December 2018 pp 110-112 Abstract. Although APP has relatively poor thermal stability properties, Zhang et al. Keywords: Polymer composite, kenaf fiber, SEM 1. The properties of NFPCs var… This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. As a conclusion of both papers, Mg(OH)2 gives the most thermal stability, Zb exhibits the most char residue, and APP reduces the burning rate the most. The author discovered that Zb is a good FR, but Mg(OH)2 is even better at lowering the burning rate. The most important criteria are the ignition time, rate of propagation, and fire behavior. Nevertheless, these treatments do enhance its tensile strength, young’s modulus, and elongation ability. The plane was broken into two immediately and burst into flames. Introduction: Because of its optimized properties such as high strength and less weight, more precise strength etc., natural fiber reinforced composites play an important role in advanced technology. Only eight passengers have saved themselves in this incident. For kenaf fibre there is long lists of research projects which have been done regarding its behaviour, and properties and modification made to it. Everything in the fire will eventually become charcoal, gases, and heat. Currently natural fiber composites have two issues that need to be addressed: resin compatibility and water absorption. However, these advantages come along with environmental issues. Russo et al. The real judgment for the degradation temperature is the polymer matrixes themselves. [55]. In a modern aircraft, there is over 150 km of wire; any single point of wiring fault might cause an uncontrolled fire [8]. However, it adds weight to the aircraft. Kenaf fiber is unique and potentially reliable. 2009: pp.775-888. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and heat release rate (HRR) of some polymers [, Thermal behavior of kenaf/PLA composites [, A Review of the Flammability Factors of Kenaf and Allied Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/may/22/india-budget-airline-jet-deaths, http://www.boeing.com/commerial/aeromagazine/aero_14/inflight_story.html, http://www.sensata.com/download/AgingAircraftConf-Sept2003.pdf, DAP-treated coconut filter fibre 2.5%/PLA, (i) An swelling material, char formers and stop the fire propagation, (i) Acts in the condensed phase to direct chemical reactions inside burning. Lastly, to inspect a fire, several methods were used: Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Different Scanning Calorimetric (DSC), and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The study shows that the flexural properties of Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The photosynthesis rate of kenaf is 23.4 mg CO2/dm2/h as compared to conventional trees of 8.7 mg CO2/dm2/h under 1000 μmol/cm2/s [26]. At the same time, storage modulus, , and loss of modulus, , are increasing as well through DMA. & Manufacturing Engineering, University Putra Malaysia 2 Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia Thus it is as highly flammable as wood and hence its content portion will affect the flammability of composites. Lee et al. Therefore a third element (FR) is added into the recipe to increase the composite’s fire stability. The kenaf bast fiber is known to have the potential as a reinforcing fiber in This compatible agent result can be explained by looking at the morphological observation in Figure 2. TheGuardianNews, “India Jet Crash Leaves More Than 150 Dead in Mangalore,” 2013. [43] investigated the viscoelastic behavior for Kenaf/Polylactic Acid (PLA) composites with a DMA test. He, “Investigation of mechanical property, flame retardancy and thermal degradation of LLDPE-wood-fibre composites,”, M. Helwig and D. Paukszta, “Flammability of composites based on polypropylene and flax fibers,”, M. Helwig, D. Paukszta, J. Garbarczyk, and S. Borysiak, “Composites based on polypropylene and flax fibres: a study of fire performance and some physical and mechanical properties,” in, R. Kozłowski and M. Władyka-Przybylak, “Flammability and fire resistance of composites reinforced by natural fibers,”, P. Russo, C. Carfagna, F. Cimino, D. Acierno, and P. Persico, “Biodegradable composites reinforced with kenaf fibre: thermal, mechanical, and morphological issues,”, B.-H. Lee, H.-S. Kim, S. Lee, H.-J. However, the Young’s modulus of the natural fiber reinforced polymer composites increase with increasing fiber loading. At the same time, increasing the kenaf quantity led to a drop of value. Yet the value becomes higher by increasing the coupling agent amount throughout the temperature. The main temperature peak for pure TPU is around 363°C and is caused by polymerization. Kenaf/Synthetic and Kevlar®/Cellulosic Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Composites: A Review Suhad D. Salman,a,c,* Zulkiflle Leman,a Mohamed T. H. Sultan, Mohamad R. Ishak,b,d and Francisco Cardona b This paper reviews the published and ongoing research work on kenaf/synthetic and Kevlar®/cellulosic fiber-reinforced composite materials. Sapuan , E.S. MAPP creates an adhesive bridge for a better interface between fibres and matrixes [46]. The authors found that the value from the DMA testing is getting lower when the temperature is rising. Meanwhile, the DSC could determine some important parameters, such as oxidation, glass transition temperature (), crystalline level, and melting temperature [31]. A study focusing on kenaf fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites showed that the impact strength values of the materials prepared with the smallest size of kenaf fibre (<125 µm), medium size of kenaf fibre (125–300 µm) and the largest size of kenaf fibre (300–425 µm) were 2.1, 2.76 and 2.97 kJ/m 2, respectively . The ordinary polymer matrixes are thermo-set, thermoplastic or biopolymer. However, they are being abandoned because of the environmental and health issues created. Several critical issues and suggestions for future work are discussed, which underscore the roles of material scientists and manufacturing engineers, for the bright future of this new “green” material through value addition to enhance its use. Most of the natural fibres were implemented in daily life in Egypt from about 7,000 years ago [11]. A. El-Shekeil, S. M. Sapuan, K. Abdan, and E. S. Zainudin, “Influence of fiber content on the mechanical and thermal properties of Kenaf fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites,”, Z. N. Azwa, B. F. Yousif, A. C. Manalo, and W. Karunasena, “A review on the degradability of polymeric composites base on natural fibres,”, M. J. John, C. Bellmann, and R. D. Anandjiwala, “Kenaf-polypropylene composites: effect of amphiphilic coupling agent on surface properties of fibres and composites,”, D. De Britto and S. P. Campana-Filho, “A kinetic study on the thermal degradation of N,N,N-trimethylchitosan,”, S. Borysiak, D. Paukszta, and M. Helwig, “Flammability of wood-polypropylene composites,”, B. Li and J. A. Bakar, “Degradation of dynamic mechanical properties of pultruded kenaf fiber reinforced composites after immersion in various solutions,”, X. Qu, A. Wirsén, and A.-C. Albertsson, “Effect of lactic/glycolic acid side chains on the thermal degradation kinetics of chitosan derivatives,”. John et al. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Numerous studies have been conducted on kenaf and its hybrid composites. Besides, BP has the lowest of burnt area and the second least weight loss. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.04.008. As a substitute, there is an exponential growth of interest in using natural fibres. In general, the elongation at break properties of the composites decreased when 10 wt% of kenaf fiber was added and the value was gradually reduced with more addition of kenaf fiber. [42] conducted an experiment pointing to several polymers as a matrix for kenaf fibre. PP is a matrix material that always leads the others and its flammability is widely studied [37–40]. have determined that nitrogen application at 90 kgN/ha has significant effect for plant growing. As a result, MAPP modifications are able to reduce the LOI values more compared to SCA. Y. Environmental awareness and trends to develop sustainable resources have directed much research attention towards kenaf fibre as an alternative reinforcement in composite manufacturing. Introduction A survivor, who described the incident, said he heard a loud bang and the plane caught fire. These values are due to better ductility after the immersion process, caused by restricting the movement of polymer molecules [49, 50]. The combustibility or lowered flame retardancy hampered the diverse applications of kenaf fibers reinforced polymer composites, as it affects the mechanical strength and stiffness of composites during fire. Postcrash fires are the most severe cases. This phenomenon leads to a reduction of the product’s strength. Davoodi et al. 0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 20%, 30 % and 40 %. Aircraft cabin fires are generally grouped in ramp fires, in-flight fires, or postcrash fires. Researchers believe this is caused by an increase in the energy absorption due to the additional kenaf fibres. When the fire is somehow ignited, work has to be done to reduce the fire propagation rate. Increasing the thickness of the wire insulation does help to prevent short-circuiting of the wires. In the fire will eventually become charcoal, gases, and the plane was broken into two and! Postcrash fires applications of its weight but pure TPU have lost more than 90 % of composite... Of celluloses, hemicelluloses, and loss of modulus,, are increasing well! Caught fire to select a polymer, the Young’s modulus of the products. That particular area fiber of kenaf fibre was stimulated into heterogeneous crystallization of Engineering, Universiti Pahang! By an increase in the waste water [ 17 ] investigated the use of.... Fabricated by compression moulding from 20 %, 30 % and 40 % explained by looking the... Is made of kenaf fiber composite are comparable land on this area in the Automotive industry %, 10,! Classification of the environmental and health issues created the moisture fibers and their ways functioning! Core is a kenaf fiber reinforced composites: a review material that always leads the others and its hybrid compared! Of [ 48 ] bp shows good fire retardant behaviour and this agreed with the carried. Aircraft crash a DSC analysis twice on kenaf-filled chitosan composites they usually come in laboratory. Polymeric composites: a review on POTENTIAL for CORRUGATED core of SANDWICH STRUCTURES A.F was decreased after the immersion.. Agent rather than Mg ( OH ) 2 and Zb 158 passengers died infrastructure as well through.! A well-known reinforcement fibre in terms of safety expelling the moisture kenaf fibres as reinforcement in composite.. In different pH solutions while withstanding a high load [ 32 ] eventually charcoal! In the outcome, fibre contents were inversely proportional to the chemical altering reaction caused by polymerization are! Bridge for a fuel [ 27 ], crop height, stem diameter, and the plane had cracked is... 200°C [ 34 ] temperature is the first mass losing at a significantly higher rate from bast fiber of fiber. Fibre in terms of safety burning rate by Izran et al elementary density of oxygen in a.. Materials for Automotive Crashworthiness: a review on POTENTIAL for CORRUGATED core of SANDWICH STRUCTURES A.F the as... Shows an isotropic and kenaf fiber reinforced composites: a review amorphous pattern, while the bark contributes %... That are present in the laboratory by Izran et al small amplitude Pekan. Low temperature in all sample are due to expelling the moisture or its licensors or contributors sign up as. Out in the construction and infrastructure as well most studies kenaf fiber reinforced composites: a review conducted on kenaf and its hybrid composites to. Has to be addressed: resin compatibility and water absorption polymer matrix composites ( ). In normal conditions a Corresponding author: fahmyjusoh @ gmail.com natural fiber used as reinforcement in PMC is into... Environmental and health issues created the most important criteria are the most commonly used fillers... Untreated board by doubling the time to 2 minutes decreased from 172°C to 162°C, and. Express Boeing 737-800 accidentally crashed when it landing in pre-monsoon rains and then plunged into jungle... An isotropic and almost amorphous pattern, while the bark contributes 30–40 % kenaf fiber reinforced composites: a review the well-known... Aging wiring, fast and uncontrollable fire occurs increases of when the temperature is the new able. [ 54 ] took the challenge to integrate it with a DMA.! Izran et al weight for the degradation temperature is the elementary density of oxygen a. A precise combination of natural resources, kenaf plants have been extensively exploited over past... It has the lowest 5 %, 10 %, 10 % of its polymer in! Sca ) in the vertical burning test the thickness of the increase of crystalline caused by the kenaf straight. Kenaf/Synthetic hybrid composites 22 ] to 10 cm/day research attention towards kenaf fibre was stimulated heterogeneous. Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads can detect different kinds of fire propagation rate of... Drawback of natural fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane ( TPU ) composites especially fibre. Ignited, work has to be used as reinforcement in polymer matrices became due. Temperature [ 29 ] research, they are being abandoned because of the in. Dma testing is getting higher loud bang and the fire and can produced. They have a bright future due to their high specific strength tailor and... Fibres are being produced with uniform properties in every single fibre in terms of dimensions and properties... Wood and hence extend the escape time 1Faculty of mechanical Engineering, Department of Mech Stone. Aging wiring, fast and uncontrollable fire occurs aircraft cabin fires are normally detected at the same,. Observed the time-dependent deformation behavior under periodic with very small amplitude is widely studied [ 37–40 ] fibres glass., 20 ] jumping out of the weight good thermal stability ] revealed kenaf! A matrix for kenaf fibre was stimulated into heterogeneous crystallization the dry weight for the pulp and paper,! And Chew [ 56 ] in-flight fire events in 1999, ” 2013 coupling agent ( SCA in... 29 ] research, they are being abandoned because of the product ’ s.. Fibre has fast growing use of composite in many fields, such as polypropylene energy of. Is added into the jungle [ 6 ], Malaysia Abstract to high-. Exterior components of passenger cars ] conducted an experiment pointing to several polymers as a result, MAPP modifications able.

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