ruby mining in myanmar

“The current ruby mining areas are rather exhausted, as we have been digging them for severa! 216-220, (1887). Search GIA's library catalog of 57,000 books, 1,800 videos, 700 periodicals, and the renowned Cartier Rare Book Repository and Archive. 411-426, (1965). Hughes, RWH Publishing, Boulder, Colorado, (1997). 9, No. The mines in the area called the Mogok Stone Tract in north-central Burma have been known to produce the most important rubies, and reports of rubies from this area have been made by explorers and other travelers since the time of Marco Polo. In 1996, after the success of the Mong Hsu Ruby mine, Ruby Dragon expanded into jade mining … This photo taken on May 16, 2019 shows miners arriving with equipment on motorcycles at a ruby mining site in Mogok, north of Mandalay. 12 (Geology and Economic Mineralogy), pp. 113-136, (1926). Myanmar is the only source of Jadeite Jade and the only source of Imperial Jadeite in the world. 37, No. 166-167, (1887). 8, pp. 1905–1912. 358-366, (1905). Small-scale mining continues, but it is slow and expensive, and ruby production throughout the country has gradually declined. 37, No. The Rubies of Burma: A Review of the Mogok Stone Tract, P.C. These mines were famous for producing about 90 percent of all pigeon blood rubies. A description is given of the simple mining methods used to recover ruby from near-surface rocks in the Mogok area. City Built on Rubies, W.G. By Martin Ehrmann, C.G. Apart from its world-renowned rubies, Myanmar has produced several other interesting gemstone materials. 11, p. 7, (1899). The Ruby Mines of Burma, T.T. The latter also occur in secondary sedimentary deposits mainly along the valley floors. Military personnel and their families are also reportedly among the largest licence-holders for mining jade and other An Account of a Map of Koshanpri, F. Hamilton, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Vol. The author of this book provides a historical account of the Mogok Stone Tract and a detailed description of ruby from Myanmar. The red stones from there are prized for their purity and hue. George, Burma Gazetteer, Vol. 367-373, (1932). Official exports of rubies from the country are valued at over $87.4 million while the undocumented exports are possibly more. ... Myanmar Imperial Jade Company and Myanmar Ruby Enterprise. 3, (July-September), pp. 22, pp. All rights reserved. This article presents a geologic description of the gem deposits near Mogok. MOGOK, Myanmar -- When the world hears about Mogok, it usually concerns some hefty ruby unearthed in the region and auctioned for millions of dollars -- … 20, No. The Mogok Stone Tract in Upper Burma (Myanmar) has been known to produce exceptional rubies since centuries, with records of mining activities dating back to at least the 16thcentury. A brief description of ruby mining around Mogok is presented. A discussion is presented of Burma as a source of gem materials. Account of Mr. [John] Crawford’s Mission to Ava, Author unknown, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Vol. 418–422 and No. The Mogok Stone Tract has produced spinel, apatite, scapolite, moonstone, zircon, garnet, iolite and amethyst gemstones. 4, pp. From 1962 onwards, the country embarked on the "Burmese Road to Socialism," which brought further restrictions on gem mining and trading. Rubies of Burmese origin have long been considered the finest quality in the world. The most recently found ruby deposit in Myanmar is in Namya (Namyazeik) located in the northern state of Kachin. 1, No. Similar articles by the same author were published in 1889 in the Revue Britannique, pp. A booklet that provides a description of the history, topography, agriculture and economy of the Mogok district. 2651, pp. Richard T. Liddicoat Gemological Library and Information Center 9, No. The Rubies of Burma and Associated Minerals: Their Mode of Occurrence, Origin and Metamorphoses – A Contribution to the History of Corundum, C.B. 125-133, (1913). Dr. James Shigley is a distinguished research fellow at the Gemological Institute of America in Carlsbad, California. Many of the articles exist in the public domain and can be found online at digital libraries such as Hathitrust, Internet Archive, or other digital repositories. 14, pp. The very best color in Myanmar rubies is sometimes described as “pigeon’s blood.” In central Myanmar, the area of Mong Hsu began producing rubies during the 1990s and rapidly became the world’s main ruby mining area. This assemblage Long-term residents of Myanmar’s ruby mining centre will be offered licences to mine for the precious stones, according to the Mandalay Region minister for forestry and mining, U Than Soe Myint. Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, has been a key producer of outstanding rubies for centuries. Burmese rubies are associated with. 11, No. RUBY MINING IN BURMA (MYANMAR) : Corundum has been found in a number of different areas of Burma. 111, pp. This photo taken on May 16, 2019 shows miners arriving with equipment on motorcycles at a ruby mining site in Mogok, north of Mandalay. A description is given of the Mogok district and the ruby mining operations. All Rights Reserved. 11, No. It … On the Ruby Mines near Mogok, Burma, R. Gordon, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. 263-272, (1932) and Methods of Ruby Mining in Burma,  The Gemmologist, Vol. 82, pp. 166, pp. Streeter, Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society, Vol. Ruby Mining in Upper Burma, J. 6, pp. A historical study of the British conquest of Burma in the late 1880s. It is situated between high jungle-covered hills. 746-757, (1962). A popular article that describes the geological setting of the mountainous Mogok district, which lies within a belt of high-grade metamorphic rocks including marbles that host many of the ruby deposits. 246-250, (1824). Mogok residents to receive ruby mining licences. Gübelin, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. Gem Mining in Burma, M. Ehrmann, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 358-366, (1905). d’Amato, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. Memorandum on the Metals and Minerals of Upper Burma, G.A. Kammerling, Gems & Gemology, Vol. 3, pp. The competitiveness of the Myanmar mining sector lags behind other countries due to lack of capital, poor quality equipment, low skills, and weak institutional support. 45, No. However, the mining industry fuels the country's controversial military, raising concerns about the ethical value of its gemstones The Graff Ruby is from the Mogok mine in Myanmar. Long-term residents of Myanmar’s ruby mining centre will be offered licences to mine for the precious stones, according to the Mandalay Region minister for forestry and mining, U Than Soe Myint. Fact Myanmar's Ruby Gems Mining. 3, No. 1, pp. A Short Description of the Mines of Precious Stones in the District of Kyatpyin, in the Kingdom of Ava, P.G.   In 1925, however, the corporation was liquidated, and control of the mines reverted to the Burmese. 62-63, (1909). In the 1990s, the Möng Hsu ruby deposit was developed and became one of the world’s greatest suppliers of, rubies. A historical study of the acquisition of the legendary ruby mines by British investors in the late 1880s. “The ruby mines are getting deeper and deeper, so now we must use 20 men for the work that formerly 10 men could do,” said Dr U Kyaw Khine, the director of the Kyaw Win Tun Gem Company. 2976, pp. Rubies are among the most important exports from Myanmar. 1, pp. Mining is carried out in open pits and underground tunnels. Mogok is known to the Burmese as “The Ruby Mines,” and is called “The Valley of the Rubies.” It lies north in the Union of Burma about five hundred miles from Rangoon. The Burma Ruby Mines, Author unknown, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. In 2008 Congress passed the Tom Lantos JADE act, banning the importation of Burmese rubies and other precious gems into the US in reaction to the military regime’s numerous human rights violations. 410-423 (the latter reprinted in Littell’s Living Age, Vol.67, No. 23, p. 636 (1890). 95, pp. Wynne, Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. years,” he said. «Under the Union’s gemstone law, a medium-scale mine is defined as covering two hectares (five acres), while small is defined as 1.2 hectares. Some dealers refer to top quality rubies as “Burmese” regardless of where they were mined, although this practice is frowned upon. 5, pp. Burma Rubies, R.S.G. Among other characteristics, they are usually color zoned . The Home of the Pigeon-Blood Ruby, L. Claremont, Knowledge – A Monthly Record of Science, Vol. Most famous is the Mogok Stone Tract, which has remained the world's … Comprehensive CAD/CAM For Jewelry Certificate, Advanced Laboratory-Grown Diamond Seminar. A book that presents summaries of the mining operations for various minerals and ores, and includes a chapter on the ruby mines of Burma that describes the history of the area and the mining methods used to locate rubies. Stones lighter than this are called pink sapphire. Ruby is gem-quality red corundum. Fax: +1 760 603 4256, Historical Reading: The Koh-i-noor Diamond, Historical Reading List: Pearls from India and Sri Lanka, Historical Reading List: The California Gold Rush, Historical Reading List: The Ancient Emerald Mines of Egypt. 24, pp. GIA World Headquarters A chapter of this book on gem deposits is devoted to a description of the ruby mines near Mogok. . 280-286). 38, No. Graham, Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Vol. Today, these mines are virtually depleted, sending the price of prized Burmese rubies sky high. Gübelin, A.A. Levinson, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. Although the discovery of rubies in the Mogôk Valley is shrouded in myth, experts believe that the area has been mined for at least a millennium. The rubies from Myanmar come from two major sources: the legendary Mogôk Valley–located some 400 miles north of Myanmar’s capital Yangon, and Möng Hsu–located in Myanmar’s Shan State, bordering China, Laos, and Thailand. Several photographs of the area are shown. Although not as productive as large-scale production, they proved to be more cost-effective and sustainable. Translation of one of first reported visits to the mines near Mogok; the original document was written as a letter by an Italian Jesuit missionary sometime before 1833. 31-34, (1936). The Great Corundums - Part II: The Pigeon-Blood Rubies of Burma, D.S.M. Bird, "Wanderings in Burma," pp. Adams, Bulletin of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, No. Several photos of the ruby mines are shown in this publication. Some dealers refer to top quality rubies as “Burmese” regardless of where they were mined, although this practice is frowned upon. The geological setting and ruby mining operations around Mogok are summarized. In recent years, considerable movement has been made towards democracy in Burma. Ruby Mines of Burma, J.L. The exact date when rubies were first discovered in Mogok is unknown. 359-370, (1827). 7, p. 187, (1900). 58, No. Judd, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, Vol. However, large-scale alluvial mining is now a thing of the past. 3-31, (1957). One of the main gemstone mining areas in Myanmar is located in the Mogok Stone Tract, a diverse gemstone environment with a variety of major geological events that have happened over time. 1142-1148, (1908). City Built on Rubies, W.G. Prices for Burmese rubies skyrocketed as the number of stones for sale was limited to items imported before the act. 8, No. The Burma Ruby-Mines, Author unknown, Chambers’s Journal, Vol. 517–524. 724, pp. A description of traveling to Mogok to visit the ruby mines is presented, along with a discussion of distinguishing ruby from synthetic and imitation materials and the difficulties of the mining operations. The Ruby Mines of Burma, G.S. How the World's Great Gem Mines were Discovered, J.L. Rubies are also mined in Afghanistan and Pakistan. 10-25, (1828). In the 1960s, a military coup destabilized Burma, and the country’s borders were closed. Judd, Philosophical Transactions of the finest rubies, worth up to half a billion dollars mining,. Among the most recently found ruby deposit in Myanmar ( Burma ), pp and sold apatite! From red spinel with a comment of how to distinguish ruby from alluvial fields, limestone caves, open in... Other color varieties of gem-quality corundum are referred to as sapphire investors in the northern part of are... Repository and Archive in McGill University publications, Series 5, No John ] Crawford ’ s suppliers. Gems at various locations in Myanmar, including the Richard T. Liddicoat gemological library in 1885, A. Williams “! In libraries, including the Richard T. Liddicoat gemological library the marketplace gübelin, A.A. Levinson Journal! 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